The phenomenon of electromagnetic induction. Faraday’s Law – English
The phenomenon of electromagnetic induction was discovered by Michael Faraday and Joseph Henry, the results of the first experiment highlighting the phenomenon of electromagnetic induction is published in 1931 by Faraday. The phenomenon of electromagnetic induction consists in the appearance of an induced electromotive voltage and an induced current in a circuit crossed by a time-varying magnetic flux. A simple experiment illustrating the phenomenon is shown in Figure 1. We have a coil at the terminals of which we connect a milliammeter forming a closed circuit. We bring a magnet in the vicinity of this circuit. If the magnet is at rest, the ammeter does not indicate any current. If the magnet is moved back and forth between the coil turns the needle of the ammeter deviates indicating the presence in the coil circuit of a current called induced current which indicates that this system (coil + magnet) behaves like an electric generator, the electromotive voltage appearing called voltage induced electric motors.
The direction of the induced current is related to the movement of the magnet and how the poles of the magnet are oriented towards the coil. The rule that determines the direction of the induced current and the induced electromotive voltage is called Lenz’s rule and is stated as follows: the induced electromotive voltage and the induced current have such a sense as to oppose the variation of the inductive magnetic field (which is the cause of the phenomenon). The application of Lenz’s rule for the experiment described in Figure 1 is illustrated below. In Figure 2 the magnet enters with the N pole between the coil turns. The inductive magnetic field B inductor is oriented to the left and causes an increasing flux through the coil. According to Lenz’s rule, the induced magnetic field B induced must cause a flux to oppose this increase, ie to be in the opposite direction to inductive B. Therefore, the induced current through the coil must have such a direction that it causes an induced B to oppose the increase of B inductor.
The magnet enters
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